Þe Kings and Cƿeens of England
The text here was adapted from a document called Kings and Queens of England & Britain by Ben Johnson, The Story of Britain by Rebecca Fraser, and from Wikipedia. The first kings of England are named Edward in the king numbering scheme, so in this text Edward Longshanks is Edward the Third rather than Edward the First.
Huse Ƿessex (before oning)
Cerdic 519 – 534
It is said þat Cerdic and his sun Cynric came from uteside of Britten, landed in Hampscire in 495, sleƿ a Brittisc king named Natanleod, and made þe Kingdom of Ƿessex. But it is odd þat Cerdic and þe next feƿ men in his bloodline seem to bear Brittisc names. Sum beleef Cerdic ƿas in treƿþ a Brit, and þat his kingdom only became Englisc ofer time, ƿiþ later folk edƿriting stear to make it seem as þoug þe kingdom ƿere Englisc from þe start.
Cynric 534 – 560
Under Cynric, Ƿessex ƿidened into Ƿiltscire and took Barbery Castel.
Ceaƿlin 560 – 592
Ceaƿlin kept ƿidening Ƿessex, figting Brits as ƿell as felloƿ Engelkin. Bede says Ceaƿlin gained lordscip ofer all þe lands suþe of þe Humber. It is said þat his neef took his þrone after ƿinning þe Guþe of Ƿooden's Barroƿ.
Ceolric 592 – 597
Ceolric ƿas þe sunsun of Cynric. He handed þe þrone ofer to his broþer Ceolƿulf.
Ceolƿulf 597 – 611
Ceolƿulf fougt neigboring folk.
Cynegils 611 – 642
Cynegils may haf fougt agenst Penda of Markric.
Cenƿalh 642 – 674
Cenƿalh ƿas baptised by Birinus, but it seems he ƿas not a good Cristen. It is said he ƿed Pendas daugter, but sƿapped her ute for anoþer ƿife, leading to him being drifen ute of his kingdom and taking scelter ƿiþ þe East Engels. He seems to haf cum back to his þrone and set up biscopricks.
Seaxburg 672 – 674
Seaxburg ƿas þe ƿife of Cenƿalh. It may be þat þrugeute her ƿeeldtime Ƿessex ƿas splintered into underkingdoms.
Æscƿine 674 – 676
Ƿessex may haf still been splintered þrugeute his ƿeeldtime. He fougt off a storming of Ƿessex by Ƿulfhere of Markric.
Centƿine 676 – 686
Ƿessex may haf still been splintered þrugeute his ƿeeldtime. It is said he drofe þe Brits to þe sea, and at sum time became a Cristen, and later geafe up his kingscip to becum a munk.
Cædƿalla 685 – 688
Cædƿalla ƿas fleemed from Ƿessex as a geƿþ, but he is said to haf brougt sum of his men ƿiþ him and sleƿ þe king of þe Suþe Saxes, but culd not hold þe land for himself. He eftcame home, took ƿeeld, and bund þe kingdom back togeþer. Cædƿalla ƿidened Ƿessex; he hƿarfed back to Sussex and took þe land; he ƿent suþe, took þe Iland of Ƿigt, ƿiped ute þe huse of its king, and made þe landfolk becum Cristens; he ƿent east and put Kent under his lordscip. At þe end of his life, Cædƿalla ƿent to Room to be baptised by Pope Sergius I, and died scortly after.
Ine 688 – 726
Ine culd not hold onto all þe land Cædƿalla had num, þoug he kept Hampscire. Ine put forþ a set of laƿs called in Latin "leges Inae". Later in life he geafe up ƿeeld and ƿent to Room.
Æþelheard 726 – 740
Æþelheard may haf been þe broþer-in-laƿ of Ine. It may be þat Æþelheard took ƿeeld ƿiþ Markisc backing, and þis may haf put Ƿessex under Markricces lordscip.
Cuþræd 740 – 756
Cuþræd may haf been Æþelheards broþer. At þis time Markric ƿas at its higt. Cuþræd freed Ƿessex from Markricces oferlordscip at Guþe Ecg in Burford.
Sigeberht 756 – 757
Sigeberht ƿas kin of Cuþræd. He ƿas unliked and ƿas þroƿn ute. He ƿas geefen ƿeeld ofer Hampscire, but before long he ƿas drifen ute of þere too, þen killed.
Cyneƿulf 757 – 786
Cyneƿulf ƿas geefen ƿeeld by þe Ƿittenmoot after Sigeberht ƿas cast dune. He fougt þe Ƿelsc, and þe Markiscmen to þe norþ. It is said þat hƿile Cyneƿulf ƿas aƿay from his settel and ƿiþ only a small duþe, Cyneheard aþeling, þe broþer of Sigeberht, gaþered sum men and beset Cyneƿulf hƿere he ƿas biding. Cyneƿulf ƿent ute to figt, but ƿas ofercum. Hƿen sum of Cyneƿulfs þanes became aƿare þat sumþing ƿas amiss þey rusced to her king only to find him dead. Cyneheard bade þese þanes ricces if hy ƿuld geeld, but þe þanes ceose to figt for her king and ƿere also slain. Þe next morning hƿen þe oþer þanes, þose hƿo had not heard gesterdays din, learned of her kings deaþ, hy rode to hƿere Cyneheard ƿas abiding. Agen Cyneheard bade ricces, saying he ƿuld geef boþ ƿealþ and land to þese þanes if hy ƿuld folloƿ him, but agen he ƿas spurned. Þe þanes told him hy ƿuld nefer folloƿ þe one hƿo sleƿ her king. Þe þanes fougt until hy broke þruge þe gates of Cyneheards hold, and hy sleƿ þe aþeling and his men.
Berhtric 786 – 802
Berhtric ƿas king hƿen þe earliest knoƿn Ƿiking raid happened at Dorset. He ƿas a þoft of King Offa of Markric.
Ecgberht 802 – 839
Ecgberht ƿas þe sun of Berhtric, and þe first king to set up a steady and ƿide ƿeeld in England. After his fleemdom at þe geard of Carl þe Great in 802, he took back his kingdom of Ƿessex. Folloƿing his nimming of Markric in 827, he held ƿeeld ofer all of England suþe of þe Humber. After furþer syes in Norþumberland and norþern Ƿales he became knoƿn by þe ekename Britenƿeelder. scortly before he died, almost sefenty geres old, he felled a fayed host of Dens and Corniscmen in Cornƿall.
Æþelƿulf 839 – 856
Æþelƿulf ƿas þe sun of Ecgberht. In 851 he felled a Dennisc here at þe guþe of Oakley hƿile his eldest sun Æþelstan felled þe Dens at sea off þe score of Kent. A higely troƿful man, Æþelƿulf fared to Room ƿiþ his sun Ælfræd to see þe Pope in 855.
Æþelbald 856 – 860
Æþelbald ƿas þe eldest sun of Æþelƿulf. He took ƿeeld after he came back from a pilgrimage to Room and made his faþer step dune. Folloƿing his faþers deaþ in 858, he ƿed his ƿidoƿed stepmoþer Judith, but under þresting from þe circ þe ƿedlock ƿas fordone after only a gere.
Æþelberht 860 – 866
Æþelberht ƿas þe broþer of Æþelbald. Scortly after taking ƿeeld, a Dennisc here landed and sacked Ƿincester before being felled by þe Saxes. In 865 þe ƿiking Great Heaþen Here landed in East Engelric and sƿept þruge England.
Æþelræd 866 – 871
Æþelræd ƿas þe broþer of Æþelberht. His ƿeeldtime ƿas a long struggel ƿiþ þe Dens hƿo had num Geork in 866, setting up þe ƿiking kingdom of Geork. Hƿen þe Dennisc here fared suþe, Ƿessex itself ƿas þreatened, and so togeþer ƿiþ his broþer Ælfræd he set ute and fougt muc ƿiþ þe ƿikings at Reading, Ascdune and Basing. Æþelræd took earnest ƿunds bin þe next great guþe at Meretun in Hampscire and died scortly after.
Ælfræd þe Great 871 – 899
Ælfræd ƿas þe broþer of Æþelræd, he ƿas learned and is said to haf gone to Room tƿise. Ælfræd scoƿed himself to be a strong leader in many guþes, and as a ƿise leader held dune fife droof geres of friþ ƿiþ þe Dens before hy agen struck Ƿessex in 877. Ælfræd ƿas pusced back to a small iland in þe Summerset Ƿetlands, and it ƿas from here þat he plotted his cumback (and hƿere tales say he ƿas cided by an old ƿoman he ƿas taking scelter ƿiþ for unƿittingly letting her cakes burn). Ƿiþ great syes at Edington, Rocester and London, Ælfræd spread Ƿest Saxisc ƿeeld ofer most of England. To fasten his hard ƿon meres, Ælfræd set up a fulltime here and hƿat ƿuld becum þe Kingfleet of later geres. To fasten his stead in stear, he called for þe ƿriting of þe Engelkin Saƿ.
Eadƿeard þe Elder 899 – 924
Eadƿeard ƿas þe sun of Ælfræd. He took back suþeeast England and þe Midlands from þe Dens. Folloƿing þe þe deaþ of his sister Æþelflæd of Markric, Eadƿeard fayed þe kingdoms of Ƿessex and Markric. In 923, þe Engelkin Saƿ says þat þe Skottisc King Constantine II acknoƿledged Eadƿeard as “faþer and lord”. Þe folloƿing gere, Eadƿeard ƿas killed in a guþe agenst þe Ƿelsc near Cester.
Aþelstan 924 – 939
Aþelstan ƿas þe sun of Eadƿeard. He ƿidened þe meres of his kingdom at þe Guþe of Brunanburh in 937. In hƿat is said to be one of þe bloodiest guþes efer fougt on Brittisc grund, Aþelstan felled a fayed here of Ƿelsc and Dens, taking for himself þe ekename Britenƿeelder. Þe guþe saƿ þe Engelkin folk brougt togeþer for þe first time under a treƿ and hƿole Kingdom of England. For þis, Aþelstan is knoƿn as þe first king of England.
Edmund 939 – 946
Edmund ƿas þe halfboþer of Aþelstan, and had fougt alongside him at þe Guþe of Brunanburh tƿo geres earlier. He agen set up Engelkin ƿeeld ofer norþern England, hƿic had fallen back under Norþman ƿeeld folloƿing þe deaþ of his broþer. At fife-and-tƿenty, and hƿile afeeing þe simbel of Augustine, it is said Edmund ƿas stabbed to deaþ by a þeef in his hall at Puckelcirc.
Edred 946 – 955
Edred ƿas þe broþer of Edmund. He folloƿed in his hirds ƿun of slaying ƿikings, and in 954 ƿarped ute þe last ƿiking King of Geork, Eric Bloodax. Edred lifed ƿiþ an earnest belly sickness þat ended up killing him in his early þirties. He ƿas unƿed and ƿiþute an erfnim.
Edƿy 955 – 959
Edƿy ƿas þe neef of Edred, and ƿas abute sixteen hƿen he took ƿeeld. Tales haf it þat his kinging had to be stalled so þat Biscop Dunstan culd rip Edƿy from his bed, and from his hƿore and her moþer. It is said þat for þis Edƿy had Dunstan fleemed to Frankric. Edƿy died hƿen he ƿas only tƿenty, þe umbstandings of his deaþ ƿere not ƿritten dune.
Edgar þe Friþful 959 – 975
Edgar ƿas þe broþer of Edƿy, and had been at odds ƿiþ his broþer for sum geres. Folloƿing Edƿys ƿeird deaþ, Edgar called Dunstan back rigt aƿay from fleemdom, making him Alderbiscop of Canterbery as ƿell as his leedy redesman. Folloƿing his kinging in 973, Edgar ƿeyed his here to Cester to be met by six kings of Britain. Þe kings, inning þe King of þe Skotland, þe King of Strackelledƿales, and sundry aþelings of Norƿales, are said to haf scoƿed her troƿ to Edgar by roƿing him in his ferry dune þe ea called Dee.
Edƿard I þe Þroer 975 – 978
Edƿard ƿas þe sun of Edgar, and ƿas kinged hƿen tƿelf geres old. Alþoug staddelled by Alderbiscop Dunstan, his kingscip ƿas gainstood by folloƿers of his muc yunger halfbroþer Aþelred. Þe folloƿing flite betƿeen þe tƿo sides ƿiþin þe circ and betƿeen hers almost led to infigting in England. Edƿards scort time as king ended hƿen he ƿas murþered by folloƿers of Aþelred.
Aþelred þe Unredey 978 – 1016
Aþelred ƿas þe halfbroþer of Edƿard. He culd not stand agenst þe Dens, earning him his ekename. He became king umb ten geres old, but fled to Normandy in 1013 hƿen Sƿeyn Forkbeard, King of þe Dens, stormed England. Sƿeyn ƿas boded King of England but died only fife ƿeeks later. Aþelred eftcame in 1014 after Sƿeyns deaþ and took back ƿeeld. Þe rest of Aþelreds time as king ƿas filled ƿiþ ƿye agenst Sƿeyns sun Cnut.
Edmund II Ironside 1016 – 1016
Þe sun of Aþelred þe Unredey, Edmund had led þe figt agenst Cnut and his storming of England sins 1015. Folloƿing þe deaþ of his faþer he ƿas made king by þe folk of London. Þe Ƿittenmoot, huefer, ceose Cnut. Folloƿing his loss at þe Guþe of Assandun, Edmund made a deal ƿiþ Cnut to split England betƿeen þem. Edmund died later þat gere, maybe from murþer.
Cnut 1016 – 1035
Cnut became king of all England folloƿing þe deaþ of Edmund II. Þe sun of Sƿeyn Forkbeard, he lead ƿell and gained þe blessing of his Englisc underlings by sending most of his here back to Denmark. In 1017, Cnut ƿed Emma of Normandy, þe ƿidoƿ of Aþelred II, and sundered England into þe four earldoms of East Engels, Markric, Norþumberland, and Ƿessex. He ƿent to Room in 1027. Tales haf it þat he ons ƿent to þe sea and bade þe tide to not cum in so þat his underlings culd see his migt ƿas not abuf man, þoug later edtellings tƿist þe tale to instead haf Cnut being lonk and treƿly þinking þe tide ƿuld listen to him.
Harold I Harefoot 1035 – 1040
Harold ƿas þe misbegotten sun of Cnut. He became king of England upon þe deaþ of his faþer hƿile his older halfbroþer Harþacnut, þe rigtful erfnim, ƿas back home sceelding Denmark from foes. Harold died þree geres after becumming king, only ƿeeks before Harþacnut ƿas set to head to England and nim kingscip from his broþer. Harþacanute had his broþers body dug up, beheaded, and ƿarped into þe Tems. His bits ƿere later gaþered and edberied in London.
Harþacnut 1040 – 1042
Harþacnut ƿas fanged rigt aƿay as king. Maybe at þe behest of his moþer, he ƿelcummed his Englisc halfbroþer Edƿard, sun of Aþelred þe Unredey, back from fleemdom in Normandy. Only abute a gere later, Harþacnut died at a ƿedding hƿile toasting to þe healþ of þe bride. He ƿas only four-and-tƿenty.
Edƿard II þe Andetter 1042 – 1066
Edƿard ƿas þe broþer of Edmund Ironside, and halfbroþer to Harþacnut. He brougt ƿeeld back to þe Huse of Ƿessex. A deeply troþful man, he ofersaƿ þe edbilding of Ƿestminster Abbey, leafing muc of þe running of þe land to his earl Godƿin and his sun Harold Godƿinsun. Edƿard died cildless, and ƿiþ no erfnim.
Harold II Godƿinsun 1066
Alþoug not from þe huse of Ƿessex himself, Harold Godƿinsun ƿas cesen king by þe Ƿittenmoot. Huefer, William þe Misbegotten, þe Earl of Normandy, put forþ þat Edƿard had made William his erfnim sum geres earlier. Hƿile Harold ƿas busy felling a Nornisc here at þe Guþe of Stamford Bricg up norþ, William stormed suþern England. Harold sƿiftly brougt his men dune ƿiþute time for rest, and þe tƿo sides met at þe Guþe of Hastings, hƿere Harold ƿas felled.
Edgar II Aþeling 1066
Edgar ƿas born in Hungary to Edƿard þe Fleem, þe sun of king Edmund Ironside hƿo had been kicked ute of England by Cnut. Edgars faþer had eftcum to England on þe behest of Edƿard þe Andetter, but Edƿard died scortly þereafter. Alþoug named king by þe Ƿittenmoot, Edgar culd not stand up to Williams here, and so he stood dune from his kingscip. Edgar sougt to take ƿeeld not long after, but fund he still culd not. For þe rest of his life he ƿent hiþer and þiþer, sumtimes at odds ƿiþ þe Normans, sumtimes beside þem, and often putting his mark on þe great happenings of þe day.
William I 1066 - 1087
I þink geƿ knoƿ hƿat happened.
William II Rufus 1087 - 1100
William took Cumberland back into England. William bade muc scot from his underlings, leading to uprisings hƿic he put dune. Sum Norman lords ƿent to Ƿales to nim land hƿic ƿold be aƿay from þe kings reac. William also clasced ƿiþ rainbiscop Anselm, leading Anselm to flee England. William strongarmed his broþers and num sum land from em. William ƿas killed by an arroƿ hƿile hunting.
Henry I Beauclerk 1100 - 1135
Henry sougt to cƿeem his Englisc underlings þruge suc þings as a Charter of Liberties. Under Henry, Anselm eftcame, and þe Exchequer ƿas stalled. Henry ƿed lady Ediþ of Skotland, hƿose great eldfaþer ƿas Edmund Ironside. Henrys broþer, Duke Robert, landed in England ƿiþ a here, hoping to nim England for himself, but he hƿarfed back hƿen he saƿ Henrys migt. Henry þen fougt þe lords hƿo had sided ƿiþ Robert, before þen storming Normandy and nimming it from Robert. Henrys sun died hƿen his scip sunk, so Henry named his daugter as his erfnim. It is said Henry died from eating too many eels.
Matilda (Huse Normandy) & Stephen (Huse Blois) 1135 - 1154
Matila ƿas þe daugter of Henry I. Alþoug sce ƿas her faþers cesen erfnim, many earls sided ƿiþ Stephen of Blois. Þe folloƿers of Matilda and Stephen fougt eac oþer until a deal ƿas struck; Stephen ƿold be fanged as king, but Matildas sun ƿold folloƿ him. Þis ƿas made cummendly by Stephens sun dying of a sickness.
Henry II Curtmantel
Henry ƿas þe sun of Matilda. He sougt to put þe circ in England under his ƿeeld by making his freend Thomas Becket þe Alderbiscop of Canterbery, but Becket ended up siding ƿiþ þe circ. Becket ƿas killed at the kings behest. Henry held muc land, oƿing to his faþer, moþer, and ƿife from Aquitaine. In 1115 Henry had eadless strongholds torn dune. Under Henry þe biscops in Ƿales began to acknoƿlecg þe ƿeeld of Canterbery. Amid Henrys time as king, Norman lords began ƿorking her ƿay into Ireland. Richard de Clare, also knoƿn as Strongboƿ, lead þe ƿay.
Richard I þe Lionheart
Richard spent littel time in England, lifing instead in Aquitaine. He þeeded himself to þe Þird Crusade, and on þe ƿay back ƿas fanged by Henry VI, þe Holy Roomisc Coaser hƿo did not like Richard. After Richards folloƿers back home geafe giselgeeld to Henry, Richard ƿas leesed. Richard fougt a ƿye agenst Fillip of Frankric, and later died.
John ƿas þe broþer of Richard. He fanded to nim ƿeeld from Richard hƿen Richard ƿas on a crusade, but he trucked, but did becum king later. Hƿile he ƿas king þe Englisc-Frenc Ƿye of 1202–1214 broke ute, and John lost muc of his huses holdings in Frankland to Fillip II. John later got into a figt ƿiþ þe Pope ofer hƿo sculd be þe Alderbiscop of Canterbery, so þe Pope mansed him, but þe bickering ƿas settelled and John ƿas num back into þe circ. John fanded to figt Frankric agen in 1214, but þe figt ƿas cƿickly forsaken. Hƿen he ƿent back to England his earls rose up and made John fang þe Articles of þe Barons, and later þe Magna Carta. John did not heed þe Magna Carta, leading to þe First Earls Ƿye. Amid þis ƿye a Frenc aþeling named Louis stormed England on behalf of sum Englisc earls, and John died. John ƿas þe first king of England sins 1066 to knoƿ hue to speak Englisc.
Louis (Huse Capet)
Louis had þe backing of sum Englisc earls sins hy did not like John, but after John died many of þese earls began backing Johns sun, Henry. Louis forsook kingscip and ƿent back to Frankland.
Henry ƿas þe sun of King John. He is said to be þe first Plantagenet king of England. Henry bued to þe Pope, and dealt ute lordscips and biscopricks to utelanders hƿo he liked. Amid Henrys ƿeeld, Englisc began to be ƿritten muc agen. Henry fougt agenst þe Frenc king and lost land to him; the great Angevin Empire had ƿaned aƿay. Henry had to gaþer his earls so often to ask for scot þat hy began to haf a greater say in running þe kingdom. Many say þis ƿas þe beginning of Parliament as ƿe knoƿ it today. Þe king did not get along ƿiþ many in his moot, and figting broke ute. Þe earl Simon de Montfort fanged boþ þe king and his erfnim after one guþe, and num ƿeeld for himself.
Simon (Huse Montfort)
Simon beckoned a great moot hƿic ƿas made up of not only earls and biscops, but also men standing for þe scires and borougs. Simon ƿas beaten and killed by Henry þe Þirds sun, Edƿard Longscanks.
Edƿard III Longscanks
Edƿard Longscanks num ƿeeld after killing Simon, þoug for a time his faþer ƿas still king in name. Edƿard ƿon Ƿales for himself. Hƿen Edƿard ƿent on a crusade he brougt his ƿife Eleanor. Edƿard fougt ƿiþ þe Skots but died before putting Skotland fully under his ƿeeld.
Edƿard IV ƿas þe sun of Edƿard Longscanks. He lost to þe Skots.
Henry IV of Lancaster
Henry V of Lancaster
Henry VI of Lancaster
Edƿard VI of Geork
Henry VI of Lancaster
Edƿard VII of Geork
Richard III of Geork