Loud Laws

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The following is a break-down of the Loud Laws that show the loud-shifts from Or-Ind-Europish through to New English.

Or-Ind-Europish to Ortheedish[edit]

  • y loud written as j (in today's writing)
  • Hundredening: Mouthroofened noseflap samedsweyers unmouthroofen into noseflap samedsweyers
  • u eked before staffayish r, l, m, and n (this must have happened before Throaty samedsweyers became dull e, see the word
  • Two toothy samedsweyers next to each other turn into a twinned s
  • Twinned samedsweyers shorten after another samedsweyer or a long cleeper
  • Long cleepers become overlong when at the end of a word
  • Throaty samedsweyers go away at the beginning of a word when they are followed by another samedsweyer
  • E-huening: e becomes a or o when next to h2 or h3, in turn
  • Throaty samedsweyers go away at the beginning of a word when they are followed by a cleeper.
  • Cleepers followed by throaty samedsweyers lengthen, making the throaty samedsweyers go away in the doing so.
  • Cowgill's law: h3 becomes g when between a ringing samedsweyer and w.
  • The throaty samedsweyers that are left become dull e (/ə/)
  • noseflap samedsweyers followed by w become lip-and-noseflap samedsweyers
  • lip-and-noseflap samedsweyers lose their lippedness next to a u, after a un, or before a t.
  • Short cleepers which are not high are lost at the end of a word
  • Grimm's Law: all whispered stops become hisses, all spoken stops become whispered, and all breathy samedsweyers lose their breathiness and become spoken stops/hisses
  • Verner's Law: hisses, inning s, become spoken after a beatless cleeper.
  • The beat goes to the first staffay
  • Gw becomes b
  • Ringing samedsweyer likening: nw becomes nn, ln becomes ll, and zm becomes mm. Whether or not it happens all the time with two Ringing samedsweyer or only in these times is beyond me.
  • beatless owo becomes long o
  • Ew becomes ow when beatless and before a samedsweyer or the end of the word
  • e becomes i when beatless, unless there is an r after it.
  • beatless ji and iji become i and long i, in turn
  • O becomes a
  • M becomes n at the end of a word, and before toothy samedsweyers
  • Nosely samedsweyers go away at the end of a word, but they nosen any cleeper before it.
  • Long nosened e becomes a long nosened a
  • Dull e goes away between samedsweyers
  • Any left-over dull e's become a
  • t goes away at the end of a word, when following an beatless staffay
  • gw becomes w, although it sometimes stays as g (such as when following n)
  • long (and overlong) a become o
  • Early umblouding: e becomes i when there is an i or j in the next staffay. Ei also becomes long i.
  • E becomes i before an n which ends a staffay
  • E becomes a before r
  • J goes away between cleepers (unless the cleeper before is i)
  • A nosely samedsweyer goes away before h, but it nosens and lengthens a cleeper before it

Ortheedish to Or-Northwest-Theedish[edit]

  • Umbloud: A, o, and u, become æ, ø, and y, when there is an i or j in the next staffay
  • U becomes o when there is a Not-High cleeper in the next staffay. This law seems to not always happen.
  • Long cleepers shorten at the end of a word
  • Overlong cleepers become long cleepers at the end of a word
  • beatless glides become only one cleeper: ai becomes long e, and au becomes long o

Northwest-Theedish to West-Theedish[edit]

  • z goes away at the end of a word
  • Roadening: z becomes r.
  • West Theedish Twinning: lone samedsweyers other than r twin before j, taking away the j by doing so.

West-Theedish to Engle-Frise[edit]

  • Ing's Nose-then-hiss law: nosely samedsweyers go away before hisses, lengthening and nosening a cleeper before.
  • Engle-Frise Brightening: a becomes æ, unless followed by a twinned samedsweyer or by a back cleeper in the next staffay
  • Æ and a, inning nosened a, are lost at the end of a word

Engle-Frise to Old English[edit]

  • Breaking: eke an u before a h, w, r, or l, when the samedsweyer follows a cleeper. This law seems to be more sundry about the fall and wends on the cleeper at hand as well as the samedsweyer
  • Cleeper height matching: the height of a glide stays the same as the first cleeper after this law happens. For a bisen, eu becomes eo, æu becomes æa (written ea), so on and so forth.
  • A-Beeting: æ into a with a back cleeper in the next staffay
  • Mouthroofening: k, g, ɣ (a sunderloud of g), and sk become /tʃ, dʒ, ʝ, ʃ/ in some falls when next to a front cleeper. It wends from samedsweyer to samedsweyer
    • k, g, ɣ, and sk all mouthroofen before i and j, and also when after i and before anything but a back cleeper.
    • word-starting k and all ɣ mouthroofen before any front cleeper and any glide
    • ɣ and sk mouthroofen after any other front cleeper when not followed by a back cleeper
    • sk always mouthroofens at the start of a word, even before a back cleeper
    • Mouthroofening treats ø and y not as front cleepers but as back cleepers instead, which makes some think that umbloud happened after mouthroofening
  • Umbloud: a, o, and u become æ, ø, and y, in turn, when there is an i or j in the next staffay, although a becomes e before a nosely samedsweyer. ea and eo become ie, which may have been outspoken as /iy/ and then /y:/
  • Near-cleeper loss: i and u are lost at the end of a word after all but short staffays.
  • Loss of j and ij after a long staffay
  • H-loss: h is lost between cleepers and between a cleeper and either r or l. The cleeper before is lengthened.
  • Cleeper Likening: The from is not too sheer on what happened to the cleepers, however, it says that two cleepers next to each other fay into a long cleeper.
  • Back wending: short e, i, and a (although a in Mercian only), are "sometimes" broken into eo, io (/iu/) and ea, in turn
  • Mouthroofy Umbloud: e, eo, and io become i before hs and ht (as in the words right and six)
  • cleepers wend in beatless staffays:
    • long o becomes a in word-ending staffays
    • æ and i become e in word-ending staffays
    • u becomes o in word-ending staffays, unless it ends the word itself.
    • a, æ, and e go away in beatless staffays that do not end the word.
    • i and u go away after a long staffay when not in a word-ending staffay
    • i and u become e otherwise when after a short staffay and not in a word-ending staffay
  • ø unrounds to e
  • cleepers shorten before 3 samedsweyer
  • iu (written io) lowers into eo
  • g hardens into /g/ at the start of a word

Old English to Middle English[edit]

  • Same-stead Lengthening: cleepers lengthen before some samedsweyer clusters, such as ld, mb, nd, rd, unless followed by a third samedsweyer, since that would not follow the shortening before clusters of three. It also seems to only happen to a, i, and u.
  • Fore-Cluster Shortening: cleepers shorten when before clusters of two samedsweyers, unless the cluster is one of the ones that lengthens a cleepers in Same-stead lengthening. Since /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ are stops followed by hisses, they are inned as clusters.
  • Glide Smoothing: ea and eo become æ and ø, in turn. Length is kept from the glide to the new cleepers
  • y unrounds
  • Long æ and long a become long ɛ and long ɔ, in turn
  • Short æ becomes a.
  • ø unrounds
  • /ɣ/ becomes w and j, w around back cleepers, and j around front cleepers
  • Middle English Breaking: put in w or j before a h after a cleeper.
  • New glides: a cleeper followed by w or j then followed by a samedsweyer becomes short if it was long, and makes a new glide.
  • ei becomes long i
  • ou becomes long u
  • eu becomes iu
  • ai becomes ɛi
  • Open staffay lengthening: cleepers lengthen when in an open staffay. This law seems to still happen even if the next staffay's cleeper is a staffayish samedsweyer, as it does in the word "raven" (Old English hræfn).
  • long u seems to shorten when followed by only an m before the next cleeper, as it does in the word "thumb"
  • Three-staffay shortening: cleepers shorten when followed by two staffays.
  • Leftover beatless cleepers become dull e (/ə/)
  • Dull e is lost in word-ending staffays.
  • hr, hl, and hn become r, l, and n, at the beginning of a word.
  • sw becomes s before a back cleeper
  • mb becomes m
  • ts (from Norman French mouthroofened c) becomes s.

After Middle English[edit]

  • H-loss: the loud now written as gh, /x/, before written as h, is lost.
  • al and ɔl become aul and ɔul, in turn, when followed by a tungtip samedsweyer, k, or the end of a word
  • al loses the l before f or v, though it stays in writing
  • al and ɔl become ɑ: and o: before m
  • The Great Cleeper Shift:
    • ī and ū become əi and əu, in turn
    • ā, ɛ:, ē, ɔ:, and ō become ɛ:, ē, ī, ō, ū, in turn
    • au becomes ɔ:
    • əi and əu become aɪ and aʊ, in turn
  • ē and ū become ɛ and ʊ sometimes, most of the time when it does happen, it's before a toothy samedsweyers.
  • Meet-Meat faying: ɛ: and ē shift to ē and ī, in turn
  • wr is outspoken as r at the beginning of a word
  • Twinned samedsweyers become only one.
  • ɛi and ē become eɪ, and ɔu and ō become oʊ
  • y (from french), ɛu, and iu become ju:
  • ɔi and ui become oɪ
  • foot-strut split: short u becomes ʊ, which further lowers into ʌ unless it has a lipped samedsweyer before it and something other than a noseflap samedsweyer after it.
  • Happy-tightening: ɪ (from short i) is outspoken as i at the end of a word.