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The following is a break-down of thethat show the from through to .
- y loud written as j (in today's writing)
- : into
- u eked before r, l, m, and n (this must have happened before became dull e, see the word
- Two next to each other turn into a s
- shorten after another or a long
- Long become overlong when at the end of a word
- go away at the beginning of a word when they are followed by another
- E-huening: e becomes a or o when next to h2 or h3,
- go away at the beginning of a word when they are followed by a .
- Cleepers followed by lengthen, making the go away in the doing so.
- Cowgill's law: h3 becomes g when between a and w.
- The that are left become
- followed by w become
- next to a u, after a un, or before a t.
- Short which are not high are lost at the end of a word
- Grimm's Law: all become , all , and all lose their breathiness and become
- Verner's Law: , s, after a .
- goes to the first
- Gw becomes b
- : nw becomes nn, ln becomes ll, and zm becomes mm. Whether or not it happens all the time with two or only in these times is beyond me.
- owo becomes long o
- Ew becomes ow when and before a or the end of the word
- e becomes i when , unless there is an r after it.
- ji and iji become i and long i,
- O becomes a
- M becomes n at the end of a word, and before
- go away at the end of a word, but they any before it.
- Long e becomes a long a
- goes away between
- Any left-over become a
- t goes away at the end of a word, when following an
- gw becomes w, although it sometimes stays as g (such as when following n)
- long (and overlong) a become o
- Early ing: e becomes i when there is an i or j in the next . Ei also becomes long i.
- E becomes i before an n which ends a
- E becomes a before r
- J goes away between (unless the before is i)
- A goes away before h, but it and lengthens a before it
- : A, o, and u, become æ, ø, and y, when there is an i or j in the next
- U becomes o when there is a Not-High in the next . This law seems to not always happen.
- Long shorten at the end of a word
- Overlong become long at the end of a word
- : ai becomes long e, and au becomes long o
- z goes away at the end of a word
- : z becomes r.
- : lone other than r before j, taking away the j by doing so.
- : go away before , lengthening and a before.
- : a becomes æ, unless followed by a or by a back in the next
- Æ and a, a, are lost at the end of a word
to Old English
- Breaking: eke an u before a h, w, r, or l, when the follows a . This law seems to be more about the and the at hand as well as the
- : the height of a stays the same as the first after this law happens. For a , eu becomes eo, æu becomes æa (written ea), so on and so forth.
- : æ into a with a back in the next
: k, g, ɣ (a of g), and sk become /tʃ, dʒ, ʝ, ʃ/ in some when next to a front . It wends from to
- k, g, ɣ, and sk all before i and j, and also when after i and before anything but a back .
- k and all ɣ before any front and any
- ɣ and sk after any other front when not followed by a back
- sk always at the start of a word, even before a back
- treats ø and y not as front but as back instead, which makes some think that happened after
- : a, o, and u become æ, ø, and y, , when there is an i or j in the next , although a becomes e before a . ea and eo become ie, which may have been as /iy/ and then /y:/
- : i and u are lost at the end of a word after all but short .
- Loss of j and ij after a long
- H-loss: h is lost between and between a and either r or l. The before is lengthened.
- : The is not on what happened to the , however, it says that two next to each other into a long .
- Back : short e, i, and a (although a in Mercian only), are "sometimes" broken into eo, io (/iu/) and ea,
- : e, eo, and io become i before hs and ht (as in the words right and six)
wend in :
- long o becomes a in word-ending
- æ and i become e in word-ending
- u becomes o in word-ending , unless it ends the word itself.
- a, æ, and e go away in that do not end the word.
- i and u go away after a long when not in a word-ending
- i and u become e otherwise when after a short and not in a word-ending
- ø unrounds to e
- shorten before 3
- iu (written io) lowers into eo
- g hardens into /g/ at the start of a word
Old English to Middle English
- : lengthen before some clusters, such as ld, mb, nd, rd, unless followed by a third , since that would not follow the shortening before clusters of three. It also seems to only happen to a, i, and u.
- Fore-Cluster Shortening: shorten when before clusters of two , unless the cluster is one of the ones that lengthens a in . Since /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ are , they are as clusters.
- : ea and eo become æ and ø, . Length is kept from the to the new
- y unrounds
- Long æ and long a become long ɛ and long ɔ,
- Short æ becomes a.
- ø unrounds
- /ɣ/ becomes w and j, w around back , and j around front
- Middle English Breaking: put in w or j before a h after a .
- : a followed by w or j then followed by a becomes short if it was long, and makes a new .
- ei becomes long i
- ou becomes long u
- eu becomes iu
- ai becomes ɛi
- : lengthen when in an open . This law seems to still happen even if the next 's cleeper is a , as it does in the word "raven" (Old English hræfn).
- long u seems to shorten when followed by only an m before the next , as it does in the word "thumb"
- : shorten when followed by two .
- Leftover become
- is lost in word-ending .
- hr, hl, and hn become r, l, and n, at the beginning of a word.
- sw becomes s before a back
- mb becomes m
- ts (from Norman French c) becomes s.
After Middle English
- H-loss: the loud now written as gh, /x/, before written as h, is lost.
- al and ɔl become aul and ɔul, , when followed by a , k, or the end of a word
- al loses the l before f or v, though it stays in writing
- al and ɔl become ɑ: and o: before m
- The Great
- ī and ū become əi and əu,
- ā, ɛ:, ē, ɔ:, and ō become ɛ:, ē, ī, ō, ū,
- au becomes ɔ:
- əi and əu become aɪ and aʊ,
- ē and ū become ɛ and ʊ sometimes, most of the time when it does happen, it's before a .
- Meet-Meat : ɛ: and ē shift to ē and ī,
- wr is outspoken as r at the beginning of a word
- become only one.
- ɛi and ē become eɪ, and ɔu and ō become oʊ
- y (from french), ɛu, and iu become ju:
- ɔi and ui become oɪ
- foot-strut split: short u becomes ʊ, which further lowers into ʌ unless it has a before it and something other than a after it.
- : ɪ (from short i) is as i at the end of a word.