Pronominal adverbs

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Pronominal adverbs are adverbs that have the same meaning as a preposition and a pronoun, and in which the pronoun is turned into a location adverb and put before the preposition. For example:

  • in this - herein
  • of that - thereof
  • by which - whereby

Notably, the set of adverbs that have where in them can be used as interrogative adverbs or relative adverbs, e.g., wherein lies the problem?, the town wherefrom he came.

Everyday speech uncommonly uses pronominal adverbs, whereas older literature and legal writing often use them. In contrast, they are far commoner in Dutch and German.

List[edit]

Preposition here- there- where-
about(s) hereabout(s) thereabout(s) whereabout(s)
against hereagainst thereagainst whereagainst
after hereafter thereafter whereafter
among hereamong thereamong whereamong
anent hereanent thereanent whereanent
at hereat thereat whereat
before herebefore therebefore wherebefore
beside herebeside therebeside wherebeside
by hereby thereby whereby
for(e) herefor(e) therefor(e) wherefor(e)
from herefrom therefrom wherefrom
in herein therein wherein
in + above hereinabove thereinabove whereinabove
in + after hereinafter thereinafter whereinafter
in + before hereinbefore thereinbefore whereinbefore
in + below hereinbelow thereinbelow whereinbelow
into hereinto thereinto whereinto
of hereof thereof whereof
on hereon thereon whereon
out hereout thereout whereout
over hereover thereover whereover
through herethrough therethrough wherethrough
to hereto thereto whereto
tofore heretofore theretofore wheretofore
under hereunder thereunder whereunder
unto hereunto thereunto whereunto
up hereup thereup whereup
upon hereupon thereupon whereupon
with herewith therewith wherewith
withal herewithal therewith wherewithal

Notes:

  • Though it looks like one, whereas is not a pronominal adverb; the as is used here in its older conjunctive use of introducing a relative clause. The same use is found in the archaic word whenas.
  • The about words now use the s variant (which stems from the adverbial genitive) and refer only to location, e.g., shops in London and thereabouts, the thief's whereabouts (treated as plural).
  • The adverbs formed from for have two variants that now differ in meaning and stress: therefor means for this and is stressed on the second syllable, but therefore means for this reason and is stressed on the first syllable.
  • The inafter/inabove and inbefore/inbelow words are now used in reference to documents, e.g., grievous body harm (hereinafter GBH), all terms listed hereinbefore shall be ignored.
  • The before words are now replaced with the tofore words, which are formed from an obsolete variant of before. They are used only with reference to time, e.g., everything that has happened heretofore.
  • The unto and withal words are archaic variants of the to and with words, though wherewithal is still used as a noun meaning means, resources.