West Germanic cognates

From The Anglish Wiki

This is a list of cognates shared between the West Germanic languages. I have limited this to English (and Old English), Dutch, and German.

What are cognates? Simply put, they are words that have been inherited from the same parent word. For example, the English word fish and the German word Fisch are cognates and come from the same Proto-Germanic word. In this case, it is quite easy to see that the two words are related; in many other cases, however, the kinship is not as easy to spot. For example, the English word eat is cognate with German essen, even though they do not resemble each other at first. However, through knowledge of sound changes, we can determine what words are cognate.

English words that did not survive up to New English and are thus reconstructions are in bold. Words that survived, but are archaic, dialectal, or obsolete are italicized. Note that words in italics include those that are no longer used in their original part of speech, even if they continue to be used after being converted to another part of speech, e.g., a word originally an adjective lives as a noun.

First- and second-person pronouns[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
ic I ik ich
mec metch (OD mik) mich
me mij mir
mīn mine mijn mein
þū thou du du
þec thetch (wanting) dich
þē thee dij dir
þīn thine dijn dein
we wij wir
ūs us ons uns
ūr our ons unser
ye gij
jij
ihr
ēow you u
jou
euch
ēower your uw
jouw
euer

Nouns[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
āc oak eik Eiche
ǣfen eve
even
avond Abend
ǣg ey ei Ei
æppel apple appel Apfel
ærs arse
ass
aars Arsch
æþelu athel adel Adel
bān bone been Bein
bēag bigh (wanting) (MHG bouc)
bēam beam boom Baum
beorg barrow berg Berg
blōd blood bloed Blut
bōc book boek Buch
bord board bord Bord
bōt boot boete Buße
brōd brood broed Brut
brord brord (wanting) (MHG brort)
brōþor brother broeder Bruder
bryce britch breuk Bruch
burg borough burg
burcht
Burg
byht bight bocht (wanting)
byrd bird (ge)boorte (Ge)burt
camb comb kam Kamm
catt
catte
cat kat Katze
ceafor chafer kever Käfer
cēap cheap koop Kauf
cīese cheese kaas Käse
clām cloam (wanting) (OHG kleim)
cnafa knave (wanting) Knabe
cnapa knape knaap Knappe
cnēow knee knie Knie
cneht knight knecht Knecht
cnotta knot knot (MHG knotze)
coss kiss kus Kuss
cow koe Kuh
cyning king koning König
cynn kin kunne Künne
dǣd deed daad Tat
dæg day dag Tag
dēaþ death dood Tod
dēor deer dier Tier
dohtor daughter dochter Tochter
dor door (wanting) Tor
dōm doom doem (OHG tuom)
dryht dright (MD drucht) (MHG truht)
duru door deur Tür
dweorg dwarf dwerg Zwerg
ēage eye oog Auge
ēare ear oor Ohr
earm arm arm Arm
ēast east oost Ost
eorþe earth aarde Erde
fæder father vader Vater
fæt vat vat Fass
fām foam (wanting) Feim
fana vane vaan Fahne
fearh farrow var (MHG varch)
feld field veld Feld
feoht fight (ge)vecht (Ge)fecht
fēond fiend vijand Feind
finger finger vinger Finger
fisc fish vis Fisch
fleax flax vlas Flachs
flōd flood vloed Flut
flyht flight vlucht (wanting)
folc folk volk Volk
fōt foot voet Fuß
fox fox vos Fuchs
frēond friend vriend Freund
friþ frith vrede Friede
frōfor froover (wanting) (OHG fluobara)
fugol fowl vogel Vogel
furh furrow voor Furche
fȳr fire vuur Feuer
fyrhtu fright (gods)vrucht Furcht
gāst ghost geest Geist
gāt goat geit Geiß
gēar year jaar Jahr
geard yard gaard (OHG gart)
gearwe yarrow gerw (Schaf)garbe
gierd yard garde Gerte
god god god Gott
gold gold goud Gold
gōs goose gans Gans
grund ground grond Grund
guma gum (MD gome) (MHG gome)
hǣr hair haar Haar
hām home heem Heim
hand hand hand Hand
hēafod head hoofd Haupt
heafon heaven (wanting) (MHG heben)
hēahþu height hoogte (MHG hœhte)
hlæst last last Last
hnutu nut noot Nuss
hræfn raven raaf Rabe
hrōp roop roep Ruf
hund hound hond Hund
hungor hunger honger Hunger
hūs house huis Haus
ielf elf alf Alb
īs ice ijs Eis
lǣste last leest Leisten
land land land Land
lār lore leer Lehre
lēaf leaf loof Laub
lēaf leave (wanting) Laube
lēoht light licht Licht
līf life lijf Leib
lippa lip lip Lippe
lufu love (wanting) (OHG luba)
lūs louse luis Laus
lust lust lust Lust
lyft lift lucht Luft
mann man man Mann
meaht might macht Macht
mearg marrow merg Mark
mōdor mother moeder Mutter
molde mold moude Molte
morgen morn
morrow
morgen Morgen
mōna moon maan Mond
mōnaþ month maand Monat
morþ morth moord Mord
morþor murder (wanting) (OHG mordor)
mōt moot (MD moet) (MHG muoz)
mūs mouse muis Maus
mūþ mouth mond Mund
nama name naam Name
neaht night nacht Nacht
norþ north noord Nord
nosu nose neus (wanting)
ōht ought (MD achte) Acht
oxa ox os Ochse
panne pan pan Pfanne
rāp rope reep Reif
regn rain regen Regen
rīce rich rijk Reich
reht right recht Recht
rūm room ruim Raum
sacu sake zaak Sache
sea zee See
sāl sole zeel Seil
scanca shank (MD schencke) (wanting)
scand shand schande Schande
scield shield schild Schild
scip ship schip Schiff
sculdor shoulder schouder Schulter
seax sax (MD sas) Sachs
siht sight zicht Sicht
sīþ sithe (wanting) (OHG sind)
sorg sorrow zorg Sorge
spearwe sparrow (wanting) (MHG spare)
spor spore spoor Spur
stān stone steen Stein
stēam steam stoom (wanting)
stede stead stad Stadt
steorra star ster Stern
stōd stud (wanting) Stute
storm storm storm Sturm
studu stud (wanting) (MHG stud)
sunne sun zon Sonne
sunu son zoon Sohn
sūþ south zuid Süd
swāt sweat zweet Schweiß
sweostor suster zuster Schwester
swīn swine zwijn Schwein
toe teen Zeh
Zehe
tācn token teken Zeichen
talu tale taal Zahl
tēam team toom Zaum
tēar tear (wanting) Zähre
tīd tide tijd Zeit
tōþ tooth tand Zahn
tūn town tuin Zaun
tung tongue tong Zunge
turf turf turf (wanting)
þæc thatch dak Dach
þing thing ding Ding
þurst thirst dorst Durst
ūder udder uier Euter
wǣpn weapon wapen Waffe
wæter water water Wasser
wāþ woath weide
wei
Weide
wearg warrow warg (MHG warc)
weder weather weer Wetter
weorc work werk Werk
weorold world wereld Welt
wer were weer (OHG wer)
west west west West
weþer wether weer Widder
wicu week week Woche
wīf wife wijf Weib
wiht wight wicht Wicht
wiht weight (ge)wicht (Ge)wicht
wind wind wind Wind
word word woord Wort
wulf wolf wolf Wolf
wyrhta wright wrecht (wanting)
wyrt wort (MD worte) Wurz
wyrt wort wort Würze

Adjectives[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
æþele athel edel edel
beald bold boud (MHG balt)
beorht bright (wanting) (MHG bërht)
biter bitter bitter bitter
blāc bloke bleek bleich
blæc black (OD blak) (MHG blach)
blanc blank blank blank
brād broad breed breit
brūn brown bruin braun
clǣne clean klein klein
cōl cool koel kühl
cūþ (un)couth kond kund
dēad dead dood tot
dēop deep diep tief
drōf droof droef trüb
dīere dear duur teuer
eald old oud alt
earm arm arm arm
fāh fough (wanting) fech
feorr far ver (MHG verre)
frēo free vrij frei
frōd frood vroed (MHG vruot)
fūht fought vocht feucht
fūl foul vuil faul
full full vol voll
fūs fouse (wanting) (OHG funs)
geolu yellow geel gelb
geong young jong jung
georn yern (wanting) (MHG gern)
glæd glad glad glatt
gōd good goed gut
grǣg gray/grey grauw grau
grēat great groot groß
grēne green groen grün
hāl whole heel heil
hālig holy heilig heilig
hāt hot heet heiß
hēah high hoog hoch
heald hold (wanting) (OHG hald)
heard hard hard hart
hrēaw raw rauw roh
hungrig hungry hongerig hungrig
hwīt white wit weiß
lang long lang lang
lēof lief lief lieb
lēoht light licht licht
lēoht light licht leicht
mēþe meethe moede
moe
müde
nearu narrow naar (wanting)
nīewe new nieuw neu
open open open offen
rēad red rood rot
rīce rich rijk reich
reht right recht recht
scearp sharp scherp scharf
scīene sheen schoon schön
scort short (wanting) (MHG schurz)
sōfte soft zacht sanft
strang strong streng streng
sūr sour zuur sauer
sweart swart zwart schwarz
swēte sweet zoet süß
þurstig thirsty dorstig durstig
wearm warm warm warm
wīd wide wijd weit
yfel evil euvel übel

Cardinal numbers[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
ān one een ein
twā two twee zwei
zwo
twegen twain (OD twēne) zween
þrī three drie drei
fēower four vier vier
fīf five vijf fünf
six six zes sechs
seofon seven zeven sieben
eahta eight acht acht
nigon nine negen neun
tīen ten tien zehn
endleofan eleven elf elf
twelf twelve twaalf zwölf

Historical Old English strong verbs[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
Class 1
bīdan bide bijden beiten
bītan bite bijten beißen
drīfan drive drijven treiben
dwīnan dwine (ver)dwijnen (wanting)
flītan flite (MD vliten) fleißen
glīdan glide glijden gleiten
grīpan gripe grijpen greifen
rīdan ride rijden reiten
rīsan rise rijzen reisen
scīnan shine schijnen scheinen
scītan shit schijten scheißen
scrīfan shrive schrijven schreiben
sēon sie zijgen seihen
sīgan sie zijgen seigen
slīdan slide (OD slīdan) (MHG slīten)
slītan slite slijten schleißen
smītan smite smijten schmeißen
snīþan snithe snijden schneiden
spīwan spew spuwen speien
strīcan strike strijken streichen
strīdan stride strijden streiten
þēon thee (ge)dijen (ge)deihen
wrītan write wrijten reißen
wrīþan writhe (MD writen?) reiden
Class 2
bēodan bid bieden bieten
brēowan brew brouwen brauen
brūcan brook bruiken brauchen
būgan bow buigen biegen
cēosan choose kiezen kiesen
cēowan chew kauwen kauen
clēofan cleave klieven klieben
crēopan creep kruipen (MHG kriefen)
crūdan crowd kruien (MHG kroten)
flēogan fly vliegen fliegen
flēon flee vlieden fliehen
flēotan fleet vlieten fließen
frēosan freeze vriezen frieren
hrēowan rue rouwen reuen
lēogan lie liegen lügen
rēocan reek rieken
ruiken
riechen
scēotan shoot schieten schießen
scūfan shove schuiven schieben
sēoþan seethe zieden sieden
sūcan suck zuiken (wanting)
sūpan sup zuipen saufen
Class 3-1
beginnan begin beginnen beginnen
bindan bind binden binden
birnan burn barnen brinnen
climban climb klimmen klimmen
clingan cling klinken (MHG klingen)
drincan drink drinken trinken
findan find vinden finden
grindan grind grinden (wanting)
rinnan run rennen rinnen
scrinan shrink schrinken (wanting)
sincan sink zinken sinken
singan sing zingen singen
slincan slink slinken (wanting)
spinnan spin spinnen spinnen
springan spring springen springen
stincan stink stinken stinken
stingan sting (wanting) (OHG stingan)
swimman swim zwemmen schwimmen
swingan swing (wanting) schwingen
winnan win winnen (MHG winnen)
windan wind winden winden
wringan wring wringen ringen
Class 3-2
berstan burst barsten bersten
bregdan braid breien bretten
ceorfan carve kerven kerben
delfan delve delven telben
feohtan fight vechten fechten
gieldan yield gelden gelten
giellan yell gillen gellen
helpan help helpen helfen
spurnan spurn (wanting) (OHG spurnan)
steorfan starve sterven sterben
swelgan swallow zwelgen schwelgen
swellan swell zwellen schwellen
sweorfan swerve zwerven (MHG swerben)
þrescan thresh dorsen dreschen
weorpan warp werpen werfen
weorþan worth worden werden
Class 4
beran bear (MD bēren) (ge)bären
brecan break breken brechen
cuman come komen kommen
helan hele helen hehlen
niman nim nemen nehmen
scieran shear scheren scheren
stelan steal stelen stehlen
teran tear teren zehren
Class 5
biddan bid bidden bitten
cnedan knead kneden kneten
cweþan (be)queath (OD quethan) (MHG queden)
etan eat eten essen
fretan fret vreten fressen
giefan yeave geven geben
-gietan yet (wanting) (ver)gessen
lesan lease lezen lesen
licgan lie liggen liegen
metan mete meten messen
sēon see zien sehen
sittan sit zitten sitzen
sprecan speak spreken sprechen
tredan tread treden treten
wefan weave weven weben
wegan weigh wegen wiegen
wägen
wrecan wreak wreken rächen
Class 6
bacan bake bakken backen
dragan draw dragen tragen
faran fare varen fahren
flēan flay (MD vlaen) (wanting)
galan gale (MD gālen) (OHG galan)
gnagan gnaw knagen nagen
grafan grave graven graben
hebban heave heffen heben
hladan lade laden laden
hliehhan laugh lachen lachen
sacan (for)sake (ver)zaken (MHG (ver)sachen)
scacan shake schaken (wanting)
scafan shave schaven schaben
scieppan shape scheppen schaffen
slēan slay slaan schlagen
stæppan step stappen stapfen
standan stand (MD standen) (MHG standen)
swerian swear zweren schwören
wadan wade waden waten
wascan wash wassen waschen
Class 7-1
blāwan blow blaaien blähen
blōwan blow bloeien blühen
cnāwan know (wanting) (OHG (bi)chnāan)
crāwan crow kraaien krähen
flōwan flow vloeien (MHG flæjen)
glōwan glow gloeien glühen
grōwan grow groeien (MHG grüejen)
māwan mow maaien mähen
rōwan row roeien (MHG rüejen)
sāwan sow zaaien säen
þrāwan throw draaien drehen
Class 7-2
bannan ban bannen bannen
bēatan beat boten boßen
fealdan fold vouwen falten
feallan fall vallen fallen
fōn fang vangen fangen
gangan gang (MD gangen) (MHG gangen)
hātan hote heten heißen
healdan hold houden halten
hēawan hew houwen hauen
hlēapan leap lopen laufen
hōn hang hangen hängen
lǣtan let laten lassen
rǣdan read raden raten
sealtan salt zouten salzen
scēadan shed scheiden scheiden
slǣpan sleep slapen schlafen
swāpan swoop (wanting) schweifen
wealcan walk (MD walken) walken
wealdan wold (MD wouden) walten
weaxan wax wassen wachsen
wēpan weep (OD wuopan) (MHG wuofen)

Preterite-present verbs[edit]

In the English section, both the expected infinitive and the expected present tense form are given. Any reconstructed OE infinitive forms are put in parentheses.

Old English English Dutch German
āgan owe (infinitive)
ough
(MD eigen) (MHG eigen)
cunnan cun (infinitive)
can
kunnen können
(dugan) dow (infinitive)
digh
deugen taugen
(durran) dur (infinitive)
dare
durven türen
magan maw (infinitive)
may
mogen mögen
(mōtan) moot (infinitive)
moot
moeten müssen
munan mun (infinitive)
man
(wanting) (OHG munan)
(-nugan) now (infinitive)
nigh
(wanting) (OHG ((gi)nuogen)
(sculan) shull (infinitive)
shall
zullen sollen
þurfan thurve (infinitive)
tharf
durven dürfen
unnan unn (infinitive)
ann
(MD unnen) (OHG unnan)
witan wit (infinitive)
wot
weten wissen

Anomalous verbs[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
dōn do doen tun
gān go gaan gehen
willan will (infinitive)
will
willen wollen

Historical Class 1 weak verbs[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
bringan bring brengen bringen
sēcan seek zoeken suchen
sellan sell (MD sellen) sellen
tellan tell tellen zählen
þencan think denken denken
þyncan think dunken dünken

Historical Class 2 weak verbs[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
borgian borrow borgen borgen
hālgian hallow heiligen heiligen
macian make maken machen

Historical Class 3 weak verbs[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
habban have hebben haben
hycgan hidge heugen (OHG -huggen)
libban live leven leben
secgan say zeggen sagen

Adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions[edit]

Old English English Dutch German
æfter after achter after
æt at (wanting) (OHG az)
and and en und
beforan before (wanting) bevor
by bij bei
for for voor für
fram from (wanting) (MHG vram)
gif if of ob
hēr here hier hier
hwǣr where waar wo
in
inne
in in in
mid mid met mit
of off
of
af ab
ofer over over ober
über
on on aan an
to
too
toe zu
þǣr there daar da
þonne than
then
dan dann
denn
þurh through
thorough
door durch
up
uppe
up op auf
ūt out uit aus