Younger Futhorc

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This is a modern runic alphabet for writing Modern English. It is named Younger Futhorc since it is based on Futhorc, which wrote Old English and Old Frisian. One of the main goals when creating this system was to not deviate from runic precedent needlessly like so many other modern runic alphabets do; only two runes have been completely repurposed, no new runes were invented, and no characters were borrowed from outside of Futhorc.

[f] / [v] wolf / wolves ~ untouched
[u] / [ʊ/ɵ] root / put ~ untouched
[θ] / [ð] sheath / sheathe ~ untouched
[oʊ/əʊ] go tweaked
[ɹ] / [ɝ] rat / tar tweaked
[tʃ] chin ~ untouched
[j] / [g] year / gift ~ untouched
[w] well ~ untouched
[h] hope ~ untouched
[n] night ~ untouched
[ɪ] billhook tweaked
[j] year ~ untouched
[x] ugh! ~ untouched
[p] plot ~ untouched
[ks] / [gz] rex / exit ~ untouched
[s] / [z] cats / dogs ~ untouched
[t] toad ~ untouched
[b] bat ~ untouched
[ɛ] edge tweaked
[m] mark ~ untouched
[l] lord ~ untouched
[ŋ] / [ŋg] song / finger ~ untouched
[d] dawn ~ untouched
[ʌ] son repurposed
[ɑ/ɒ] father tweaked
[æ/a] fat ~ untouched
[i] sea repurposed
[y] N/A ~ untouched
[k] king ~ untouched
[g] go ~ untouched
ᚩᛁ [ɔɪ] boy innovative
ᚳᚷ [dʒ] / [ʒ] bridge assumed
ᚻᚹ [ʍ] which ~ untouched
ᛁᚱ [ɪɝ] sear tweaked
ᛋᚳ [ʃ] fish ~ untouched
ᛖᚱ [ɝ/ɜ] bird repurposed
ᛖᛁ [eɪ/ɛi] grey innovative
ᛖᛁᚱ [eɪ.ɝ] player innovative
ᛖᛁᛝ [eɪ.ɪŋ] saying innovative
ᚪᛁ [aɪ/əɪ] fly innovative
ᚪᚢ [ɔ] awe repurposed
ᚫᚢ [aʊ] mouse assumed
ᚫᚱ [ɛɝ] there repurposed
ᚫᛝ [æŋ/eɪŋ] sang tweaked
ᛠᚱ [i.ɝ] seer repurposed


  • Not everyone speaks English the same way, so tweak the rules however you find necessary.
  • Words should be spelled according to their stressed pronunciations, not their unstressed pronunciations. For example, I drop [d] in words like land in unstressed speech, but in stressed speech where I try to pronounce things "right" I will add the [d] back. That being so, the stressed pronunciation of land for me has [d] so I should spell it ᛚᚫᚾᛞ.
  • [ə] and [ɨ] are represented with whatever vowels they are "supposed" to be when stressed. So the [ə] at the beginning of about is spelled with ᚪ while the [ə] at the end of photo is spelled with ᚩ.
  • ᛋ has the manuscript variant shape ᚴ, and ᛡ has the manuscript variant shape ᛄ
  • Words like pair and sang are spelled like ᛈᚫᚱ and ᛋᚫᛝ so that ᛈᛖᛁᚱ and ᛋᛖᛁᛝ can be payer and saying.
  • For non-rhotic kinds of English, ᚱ can indicate vowel length; in Received Pronunciation ᛣᚪᚱ is /kɑː/.
  • ᛖ followed by ᚾ, ᛚ, or ᛗ can stand for the syllabic consonants n̩, l̩, or m̩. So fatten is ᚠᚫᛏᛖᚾ.
  • ᛉ is only [ks] and [gz] in morphemes. So sax is ᛋᚫᛉ, but sacks is ᛋᚫᛣᛋ. This mimics how the Anglo-Saxons usually used X in their Latin-based alphabet, and how we still use it today.
  • Because Futhorc does not seem to have settled on how to use ᚷ, ᛡ, and ᚸ consistently, and it seems like Futhorc could have gone any number of ways had it survived longer, I leave it up to the reader to settle on how they want to utilise the three runes. Below I have left some suggestions.
/j/ universally /g/ universally /g/ universally, /j/ when followed by ᚫ, ᛁ, ᛖ, ᛠ
not used /j/ universally /j/ when followed by ᚪ, ᚩ, ᚢ, ᛟ, ᚣ
/g/ universally not used not used



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