Younger Futhorc

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This is a modern runic alphabet for writing Modern English. It is named Younger Futhorc since it is based on Futhorc, which wrote Old English and Old Frisian. One of the main goals when creating this system was to not deviate from runic precedent needlessly like so many other modern runic alphabets do; only two runes have been completely repurposed, no new runes were invented, and no characters were borrowed from outside of Futhorc.

[f] / [v] wolf / wolves ~ untouched
[u] / [ʊ/ɵ] root / put ~ untouched
[θ] / [ð] sheath / sheathe ~ untouched
[oʊ/əʊ] go tweaked
[ɹ/r] rat / tour tweaked
[tʃ] chin ~ untouched
[j] / [g] yes / gift ~ untouched
[w] well ~ untouched
[h] hope ~ untouched
[n] night ~ untouched
[ɪ] pill tweaked
[j] yawn ~ untouched
[x] ugh! ~ untouched
[p] plot ~ untouched
[ks] / [gz] rex / exit ~ untouched
[s] / [z] cats / dogs ~ untouched
[t] toad ~ untouched
[b] bat ~ untouched
[ɛ] edge tweaked
[m] mark ~ untouched
[l] lord ~ untouched
[ŋ] / [ŋg] song / finger ~ untouched
[d] dawn ~ untouched
[ʌ] son repurposed
[ɑ/ɒ] / [ə] on / about tweaked
[æ/a] fat ~ untouched
[i] sea repurposed
[y] N/A ~ untouched
[k] cat ~ untouched
[g] go ~ untouched
ᚩᛁ [ɔɪ] boy innovative
ᚳᚷ [dʒ] / [ʒ] bridge assumed
ᚻᚹ [ʍ] which ~ untouched
ᛁᚱ [ɪɝ] sear tweaked
ᛋᚳ [ʃ] fish ~ untouched
ᛖᚱ [ɝ/ɜ] bird repurposed
ᛖᛁ [eɪ/ɛi] grey innovative
ᛖᛁᚱ [eɪ.ɝ] player innovative
ᛖᛁᛝ [eɪ.ɪŋ] saying innovative
ᚪᛁ [aɪ/əɪ] fly innovative
ᚪᚢ [ɔ] awe repurposed
ᚫᚢ [aʊ] mouse assumed
ᚫᚱ [ɛɝ] there repurposed
ᚫᛝ [æŋ/eɪŋ] sang tweaked
ᛠᚱ [i.ɝ] seer repurposed


  • ᛋ has the manuscript variant shape ᚴ
  • ᛡ has the manuscript variant shape ᛄ
  • Words are spelled stressed. So the adjective learned is spelled ᛚᛖᚱᚾᛖᛞ, not ᛚᛖᚱᚾᛁᛞ.
  • Words like pair and sang are spelled like ᛈᚫᚱ and ᛋᚫᛝ so that ᛈᛖᛁᚱ and ᛋᛖᛁᛝ can be payer and saying.
  • ᚱ following a vowel often becomes an "r-colored vowel". For example, ᛣᚪᚱ is [kɑɝ] rather than literally being [kɑɹ].
  • For non-rhotic kinds of English, ᚱ can indicate vowel length; in Received Pronunciation ᛣᚪᚱ is /kɑː/.
  • ᛖ followed by ᚾ, ᛚ, or ᛗ can stand for the syllabic consonants n̩, l̩, or m̩. So fatten is ᚠᚫᛏᛖᚾ.
  • ᛉ is only [ks] and [gz] in morphemes. So sax is ᛋᚫᛉ, but sacks is ᛋᚫᛣᛋ. This mimics how the Anglo-Saxons usually used X in their Latin-based alphabet, and how we still use it today.
  • Because Futhorc does not seem to have settled on how to use ᚷ, ᛡ, and ᚸ consistently, and it seems like Futhorc could have gone any number of ways had it survived longer, I leave it up to the reader to settle on how they want to utilise the three runes. Below I have left some suggestions.
/j/ universally /g/ universally /g/ universally, /j/ when followed by ᚫ, ᛁ, ᛖ, ᛠ
not used /j/ universally /j/ when followed by ᚪ, ᚩ, ᚢ, ᛟ, ᚣ
/g/ universally not used not used



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